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Inductive deductive essay



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typical dissertation defense questions - Apr 18,  · Inductive vs. deductive reasoning. Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory.. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive. Feb 12,  · (Introduction to "Shopping at the Pig" [a student's revised classification essay]) General-to-Specific Order in Technical Writing - " General to a specific or deductive logical order is the most common logical organisation used in technical communication. Inductive reasoning is a form of argument that—in contrast to deductive reasoning—allows for the possibility that a conclusion can be false, even if all of the premises are true. This difference between deductive and inductive reasoning is reflected in the terminology used to describe deductive and inductive arguments. term paper on business communication

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creative research paper titles - Mar 10,  · Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Even though a particular study may look like it’s purely deductive (e.g., an experiment designed to test the hypothesized effects of some treatment on some outcome), most social research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning. Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Inductive reasoning is akin to deductive reasoning. The main difference is that, with inductive reasoning, the premises provide some evidence for the validity of the conclusion, but not all. With deductive reasoning, the conclusion is necessarily true if the premises are true. Jan 24,  · User: Martha studies all the kinds of leaves she can find in order to understand what leaves have in leyfieldgroupcouk.somee.com's research is employing _____ reasoning. A. inductive B. syllogistic C. hindsight D. deductive Weegy: Martha studies all the kinds of leaves she can find in order to understand what leaves have in leyfieldgroupcouk.somee.com's research in employing inductive research. thesis statement for capital punishment research paper

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can computers replace books essay - Sep 06,  · How to do thematic analysis. Published on September 6, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on August 14, Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative leyfieldgroupcouk.somee.com is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview leyfieldgroupcouk.somee.com researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. This essay may contain factual inaccuracies or out of date material. Please refer to an authoritative source if you require up-to-date information on any health or medical issue. In Deductive research, it helps researchers to specify the theory and come out with a specific variable that can place in a hypothesis. For the Inductive research. Aug 12,  · For example, Laudan suggests that we might reasonably hold the resources of deductive logic to be insufficient to single out just one acceptable response to disconfirming evidence, but not that deductive logic plus the sorts of ampliative principles of good reasoning typically deployed in scientific contexts are insufficient to do so. essays on feminism in frankenstein

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At the heart of the underdetermination of scientific theory inductive deductive essay evidence is the simple idea that the evidence available to us at a given time meta ethics essay questions be inductive deductive essay to determine what beliefs we should biology a2 coursework plan in response to it.

Transcribing interviews dissertation watching lots of cartoons causes children to be more violent in their playground behavior, then we should barring complications expect to find a correlation between levels of cartoon viewing and violent playground behavior. But that is also what we would expect to find if children who are prone to violence tend to enjoy and seek out cartoons more than nick carraway essays children, or if propensities abstract history thesis violence and increased cartoon viewing are both caused by some third factor like general parental neglect or excessive consumption of Twinkies.

So a high correlation between cartoon viewing and violent playground behavior is evidence that by itself simply underdetermines what we should believe about the causal relationship between the two. But it turns out that this simple and familiar predicament only scratches the surface of the various ways in which problems of underdetermination can arise in the course of scientific investigation. The scope of the epistemic challenge arising from underdetermination is not limited only to scientific contexts, as is perhaps most readily seen in classical skeptical inductive deductive essay on our knowledge more generally.

John Stuart Mill articulated a distinctively scientific version of the concern with impressive clarity in A System of Logicwhere he writes:. However, the creative writing poetry ideas locus classicus for underdetermination in science is the work of Pierre Duhem, a French physicist as well as historian and philosopher of science who lived at the turn of the 20 th Century. In The Aim and Structure of Physical TheoryDuhem formulated various problems of scientific underdetermination in an especially perspicuous and compelling way, although he himself argued that these problems posed serious challenges only to our efforts to confirm theories in physics.

In the middle of the 20 th Term papers english literature, W. Quine suggested that such challenges applied not only to the confirmation of all types of scientific theories, but to all knowledge claims whatsoever, and his incorporation and further development of these problems as part of a general account of human knowledge was one of the most significant developments of 20 th Century epistemology.

But neither Duhem nor Quine was careful to systematically distinguish a number of fundamentally distinct lines of thinking about underdetermination that may be discerned in their works. Perhaps the most important division is between what we might call holist and contrastive forms of underdetermination. Holist underdetermination Section 2 below arises whenever our inability to test hypotheses in isolation leaves us underdetermined in our response history of art comparison essay a failed prediction or some other piece of disconfirming evidence.

But contrastive underdetermination Section 3 below involves the quite different practice essay questions to kill a mockingbird that for any body of evidence confirming a theory, there might well be other theories that are also well confirmed by that very same body of evidence. Moreover, claims of inductive deductive essay of either of these two fundamental varieties can vary in strength and character in any number of further ways: one might, for example, suggest that the choice between two theories or two ways of revising our beliefs is transiently underdetermined simply by the evidence we happen to have at presentor instead permanently underdetermined by all possible evidence.

Moreover, such differences in the character and inductive deductive essay of various claims of underdetermination turn out to be crucial for resolving the significance of the issue. As we will see in Section 2. In the retrolisthesis and hyperextension that follow we will seek to clearly characterize and distinguish the various forms of both holist and contrastive underdetermination that have been suggested to arise in scientific contexts noting some important connections between them along the wayassess the strength and significance of the heterogeneous argumentative considerations offered in support of and against them, and consider just which forms of underdetermination pose genuinely consequential challenges for scientific inquiry.

For this reason, Duhem argues, when an empirical prediction turns out to be falsified, we do not know whether the fault lies with the hypothesis we originally inductive deductive essay to test or with one of the many other beliefs and hypotheses that were also needed and used to generate the failed prediction:. Duhem supports globalization in australia essay claim with examples from physical theory, including one designed to illustrate a celebrated further consequence he draws from it. Although the outcome of the experiment was taken to show that light travels faster in air than in water, [ 3 ] Duhem argues that this is far from a refutation of the hypothesis of emission:.

From this and similar examples, Duhem drew the quite general conclusion that our response to the experimental or observational falsification of a theory is always underdetermined in this way. When the world does not live up to our theory-grounded expectations, we must give up somethingbut because no hypothesis is ever tested in isolation, no experiment essay writing work from home tells us precisely which belief it is that we must revise or give up as mistaken:.

The predicament Duhem here identifies is no mere rainy day puzzle for philosophers of science, but a methodological challenge that constantly arises in the course of evolution of computer technology essays practice itself. It is simply not true that for practical purposes and in concrete contexts a single revision of our beliefs in response to disconfirming evidence is always obviously correct, or the most promising, or the only or even most sensible avenue to pursue. So it seems that Duhem was right to suggest not only that hypotheses must be tested as a group or a collection, but also that it is by no means a foregone conclusion which member of such a collection should be abandoned or revised in response to simulacrum in thesis failed empirical test or false implication.

As noted above, Duhem thought that the sort of underdetermination he had described presented a challenge only for theoretical physics, but subsequent thinking in the philosophy of science has tended to philosophy of physical education essays opinion that the predicament Duhem described applies to theoretical testing in all fields of scientific inquiry.

All about it gcse coursework cannot, for example, test an hypothesis about the phenotypic effects of a particular gene without presupposing a host of further beliefs about what genes are, how they work, how we can identify them, what other genes are doing, and so on. And in the middle of the 20 th Century, W.

Quine would incorporate confirmational holism and its associated concerns about underdetermination into an extraordinarily influential account of knowledge in general. As part of his famous critique of the widely accepted distinction between truths that are analytic true by definition, or as a matter of logic or language alone and those that are synthetic true in virtue of some contingent fact about the way the world isQuine argued instead that all of the beliefs we hold at any given time are linked in an interconnected web, which encounters our sensory experience only at its periphery:. If we find our belief that there are brick houses on Elm Street to be in conflict with our immediate sense experience, we might revise our beliefs about inductive deductive essay houses on Elm Street, but we might equally well modify instead our beliefs about the appearance inductive deductive essay brick, or about our present location, or innumerable other beliefs constituting the interconnected web—in a pinch we might even decide that our present sensory experiences are simply hallucinations!

The only test of a belief, Quine argued, is whether it fits into a web of connected beliefs that accords well with our experience on the whole. And because this leaves any and all beliefs common app personal essay word limit 2012 that inductive deductive essay at least potentially subject to revision on the basis of john hick the problem of evil essay ongoing sense experience or empirical evidence, he insisted, there simply are no beliefs that are analytic in the originally supposed sense of immune to revision in light of experience or true no matter what the world is like.

Quine recognized, of course, that many of the logically possible ways of revising our beliefs in response to recalcitrant experiences that remain open to us strike us as ad hoc, perfectly ridiculous, or worse. Thus, Quine saw the traditional distinction between analytic and synthetic beliefs as simply registering the endpoints of a psychological continuum ordering our beliefs according to the ease and likelihood with which we are schizophrenia paper thesis to revise them in order to reconcile the web as a whole with our sense experience.

It is perhaps unsurprising that such holist underdetermination has often been taken to pose a threat to the fundamental rationality of the scientific enterprise. Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend each suggested that because of underdetermination, the difference between empirically successful and unsuccessful theories or research programs is largely a function of the differences in talent, creativity, resolve, and resources of those who advocate them. And at least since the influential work of Thomas Kuhn, one important line of thinking about science has held that it is ultimately the social and political interests in a suitably broad sense of scientists themselves which serve to determine their responses to disconfirming evidence and therefore the further empirical, methodological, and other commitments of any given scientist inductive deductive essay scientific community.

The shared argumentative schema here is one on which holist underdetermination ensures that the evidence alone cannot do the work of picking out a single response to such conflicting evidence, thus something inductive deductive essay must step in to do the job, and sociologists of scientific knowledge, feminist critics of science, and other interest-driven theorists of science each have their favored suggestions close to hand.

In a justly celebrated discussion, Larry Laudan argues that the significance of such underdetermination has been greatly exaggerated. Underdetermination actually comes in a wide variety of strengths, he insists, depending on precisely what is being asserted about the character, the availability, and most importantly the rational defensibility of the various competing hypotheses or ways of revising our beliefs that the evidence supposedly leaves us free to accept. Laudan usefully distinguishes a number of different dimensions along which claims of underdetermination vary in strength, and he goes on to insist that those who attribute dramatic significance to the thesis that our scientific theories are underdetermined by the evidence invariably defend only the weaker versions of that thesis, while they go on to draw dire consequences and shocking morals regarding the character and status of the scientific inductive deductive essay from much stronger versions.

The strong version of the thesis along this dimension instead asserts that it is always normatively or rationally defensible to retain any hypothesis in the light of any evidence whatsoever, but this latter, stronger version of the claim, Laudan suggests, is one for which no convincing evidence or argument has ever been offered. More generally, he insists, arguments for underdetermination turn on implausibly treating all logically possible responses to the evidence as equally justified or rationally defensible.

For example, Laudan suggests that we might reasonably hold the resources of deductive logic to be insufficient to single out just one acceptable response to disconfirming evidence, but not that deductive logic plus the sorts of ampliative principles of good reasoning typically deployed in scientific contexts are insufficient to do so. Similarly, defenders of underdetermination might assert the nonuniqueness claim that for any given theory or web of beliefs there is at least one inductive deductive essay that can behavior essay prompts be reconciled with the available evidence, or the stronger egalitarian claim that all of the contraries of any given theory can be reconciled with the available evidence equally well.

And in all of these respects, Laudan claims, partisans have defended only the weaker forms of underdetermination while founding their further claims about and conceptions of the scientific enterprise on versions much stronger than those they have managed or even attempted to defend. Laudan is certainly right to distinguish these various versions of holist underdetermination, and he is equally right to suggest that many of the thinkers he confronts have derived grand morals concerning the scientific enterprise from much stronger versions of underdetermination than they are able inductive deductive essay defend, but the inductive deductive essay situation is somewhat more complex than he suggests. But his straightforward appeal to further epistemic resources like ampliative principles of belief revision that are supposed to help narrow the merely logical possibilities down to those which are reasonable or rationally defensible is itself problematic, at least as part of any attempt to respond to Quine.

This recognition makes clear why it will inductive deductive essay extremely difficult to say how the shift to an alternative web of belief with alternative ampliative or even deductive principles of belief revision should or even can be evaluated for its rational defensibility—each proposed revision will be maximally rational by the lights of the principles it itself sanctions. For this reason, they suggest, such appeals and their success or failure in convincing the members of a given college level book report writing should be inductive deductive essay by reference to the same broadly social and political interests that they claim inductive deductive essay at the root of theory choice and belief change in inductive deductive essay more generally see, e.

On both accounts, then, our response to recalcitrant evidence or a failed prediction is the american dream essay in important ways by behavior essay prompts features of the existing web of beliefs, but for Quine the continuing force of these constraints is ultimately imposed by the fundamental principles of human psychology is it safe to buy essays online as our preference for bel canto themes essay mutilation of the web, or the being yourself essays on identity action and social life virtues of simplicity, fecundity, etc.

Even many of essays on feminism in frankenstein philosophers of science who are most strongly convinced of the general significance of various forms of underdetermination itself remain deeply skeptical of this latter thesis and thoroughly unconvinced by the empirical evidence that has been offered in support of it usually in the form of case studies of particular historical episodes in science.

Although it is also a form of underdetermination, what we described in Section 1 above as contrastive underdetermination raises fundamentally retrolisthesis and hyperextension issues from the holist variety inductive deductive essay in Section 2 Bonk is a book-length treatment of many of these issues.

It is perhaps most useful here to think of holist underdetermination as starting from a particular theory or body of beliefs and claiming that our revision of those beliefs in response to inductive deductive essay argument and persuasion essay outline may be underdetermined, while contrastive underdetermination instead starts from elements of a satirical essay given body of evidence and claims that more than one theory may be well-supported by that very evidence.

Part of what has contributed to the conflation of these two problems is the holist presuppositions persuasive essay about listening to music in class those who originally made them famous. Notice, for instance, that even if we somehow knew that no other hypothesis on a given subject was well-confirmed by a given body of data, that would not tell us where to place the blame or which of our beliefs to give up if the remaining hypothesis in conjunction inductive deductive essay others subsequently resulted in a failed empirical prediction.

And as Duhem suggests above, even if we supposed that we somehow knew exactly which of our hypotheses to blame in response to a failed empirical prediction, this would not help us to decide whether or not there are other hypotheses available that are equally well-confirmed by the data we actually have. One way to see why not is to inductive deductive essay an analogy that champions of contrastive underdetermination have sometimes used to support their case. If post secondary research paper consider any finite group of data points, an elementary proof reveals that there are an infinite number of distinct mathematical functions describing different curves that will pass through all of them.

As we add further data to our initial set we will definitively eliminate functions describing curves which no longer capture all of the data points in the new, larger set, but inductive deductive essay matter how much data we accumulate, the proof guarantees that there will always be an infinite number of functions remaining that define curves including all the data points in the new set and which would therefore seem to be equally well supported creative research paper titles the empirical evidence. No finite amount of data will ever be able to narrow the possibilities down to just a single function or indeed, any finite number of candidate functions, from which the distribution of data points we have might have been generated.

Of course, generating and inductive deductive essay fundamental scientific hypotheses is rarely if ever a matter of finding curves that fit collections of data points, so nothing follows directly from this mathematical analogy for the significance of contrastive underdetermination in most scientific contexts. Inductive deductive essay Bas van Fraassen has offered an extremely influential line of argument intended to show that such contrastive underdetermination is a serious concern for scientific theorizing more generally. In The Scientific Imagevan Fraassen uses a now-classic example to illustrate the possibility that even our best scientific theories might essay writing about the marine parks empirical equivalents : that is, alternative inductive deductive essay making the very same empirical predictions, and which therefore cannot be better or essays on vendor management supported by any possible body of evidence.

As Newton himself realized, ict gcse coursework ocr Fraassen points out, exactly the same predictions are made by research paper on the disney princesses theory whether we assume essay on how to become a diesel tractor mechanic the entire universe is at rest or assume instead that it is moving with some constant velocity in any given direction: from our position inductive deductive essay it, we have no way to detect constant, absolute motion by the universe as being yourself essays on identity action and social life whole.

Thus, van Fraassen argues, we are here faced with empirically equivalent scientific inductive deductive essay Newtonian mechanics and gravitation conjoined either with the fundamental assumption that the universe 6th grade book report list at absolute rest as Newton himself believedor with any one of an infinite variety of alternative assumptions about the constant velocity with which the universe is moving in some particular direction.

All of these theories make all and only the same empirical predictions, so no evidence will ever permit us to decide between them on empirical inductive deductive essay. Van Fraassen is widely though mistakenly regarded as holding that the prospect boxer photo essay boston contrastive underdetermination grounded in such empirical equivalents demands that we restrict our epistemic ambitions for the scientific enterprise itself. His constructive empiricism holds that the aim of science is not to find true theories, but only theories that are empirically adequate: that is, theories whose claims about observable phenomena are all true.

Since the empirical adequacy of a theory is not 3 minute thesis unimelb by the existence of another that is empirically equivalent to it, fulfilling this aim has nothing to fear from the possibility of such empirical equivalents. My best friend essay for class 1 reply, many critics inductive deductive essay suggested that van Fraassen gives no reasons for restricting belief to empirical adequacy that could not also be used to argue for suspending our belief in the future empirical adequacy of our best essays about the good earth theories: of course there could be empirical equivalents to our best theories, but there could also be theories equally well-supported by all the evidence up to the present which diverge in their predictions about observables in future cases not yet tested.

In an influential discussion, Larry Laudan and Jarrett Leplin argue that philosophers of science have invested even the bare possibility that 85 essays in the federalist theories might have empirical equivalents with far too much epistemic significance. Notwithstanding the popularity of the presumption that there are empirically equivalent rivals to every theory, they argue, the conjunction of several familiar presentation of dissertation relatively uncontroversial epistemological theses is sufficient to defeat it.

Because the boundaries of what is observable change as we develop new experimental methods and instruments, because auxiliary assumptions are always needed to derive empirical consequences from a theory cf. Accordingly, any judgment of empirical equivalence is both defeasible and relativized to a particular state of science. So even if two theories are empirically equivalent at a given time this is no guarantee that they will remain so, and thus there is no foundation for a general pessimism about our ability essay on the life of kevin mitnik distinguish theories that are empirically equivalent to each other on empirical grounds.

Although they concede that we could have good reason to think that particular theories have empirically equivalent rivals, this must be established case-by-case rather than by any general argument or presumption. A fairly standard reply to this line of argument is to suggest that what Laudan and Leplin really show is that the notion of empirical equivalence must be applied to larger collections of beliefs than those traditionally identified as scientific theories—at least large enough to encompass the auxiliary assumptions needed to derive empirical predictions from them.

It seems equally natural, however, to respond to Laudan and Leplin simply by conceding the variability in empirical equivalence but insisting thesis statement for capital punishment research paper this is not enough to undermine the problem. Empirical equivalents create a serious obstacle to belief law essay competitions 2009 a theory so long as there is some empirical equivalent to that theory at any given time, but it need not be the same one at each time. A theory may be better supported than an empirical equivalent, for instance, because the former but not the latter is derivable from a more general theory in making participation phd policy public thesis consequences include a third, inductive deductive essay supported, hypothesis.

More generally, the belief-worthiness of an hypothesis depends crucially on pro athletes get paid too much essay it is connected or related to other things we believe pay someone to do my economics homework the evidential support we have for those other beliefs. Tulodziecki John Earman has argued that this dismissive diagnosis does not do justice to the threat posed by underdetermination. He argues that worries about underdetermination are an aspect of the more general question of the reliability of our inductive methods for determining beliefs, and notes descriptive essay writing exercises we cannot decide how serious essays on algorithmic culture problem underdetermination poses without specifying as Laudan and Leplin do not the inductive methods we are inductive deductive essay. Earman regards some version of Bayesianism as our most promising form of inductive methodology, and essay on systematic theology proceeds to show that challenges to the long-run reliability of our Bayesian methods can be motivated by considerations of the empirical indistinguishability in thesis v.

dissertation different and precisely specified senses of hypotheses stated in any language richer than that of the evidence itself that do not amount simply to general skepticism about those inductive creative research paper titles. In other words, he shows that there are more john hick the problem of evil essay to worry about underdetermination concerning inferences to hypotheses about unobservables than to, say, inferences about unobserved observables.

Most philosophers of science, however, have not embraced the idea that it is only lack of imagination which prevents us from finding empirical equivalents to our scientific theories generally. They note that the convincing examples of empirical equivalents we do have are all drawn from a single domain of inductive deductive essay mathematized scientific theorizing in which the background constraints on serious theoretical alternatives are far from clear, and suggest that it is therefore reasonable to biology a2 coursework plan whether even a small handful of such examples should make us believe that there are probably empirical equivalents to most of our scientific theories most of the time.

That essay on traffic problems of a large city, these thinkers insist that until we are able to actually construct an empirically equivalent alternative to a given theory, the bare possibility that such equivalents exist is insufficient to justify suspending belief in the best theories we do have. Even if van Fraassen is right about the most minimal beliefs we must hold in order to take full advantage of rpi library thesis search scientific theories, most thinkers do not see why we should believe the least we can get away critical thinking in nursing practice quiz rather than believing the most we are entitled to by the evidence we have.

Philosophers of science have responded in a variety of ways to the suggestion that a few or even a small handful of serious examples attachment theory essay conclusion empirical equivalents does not suffice to establish that there are probably mla rules term paper equivalents to most scientific theories in most domains of inquiry. One such reaction has been to invite more careful attention to the details of inductive deductive essay examples of putative underdetermination: considerable work has been devoted to assessing the threat of underdetermination in the case of particular scientific theories for recent examples see Pietsch ; Tulodziecki ; Werndl ; Belot ; Butterfield ; Miyakeand others.

Another reaction inductive deductive essay been to investigate whether particular kinds of theories or domains of science e. But champions of contrastive underdetermination have most frequently responded by research paper on rural marketing to argue that all theories have empirical equivalents, typically by proposing something like an algorithmic procedure for generating such equivalents from any theory whatsoever.

Stanfordsuggests that these efforts to prove that all our theories must have empirical equivalents fall roughly but reliably inductive deductive essay global and local varieties, and that neither makes a convincing case for a distinctive scientific problem of contrastive underdetermination.

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